Table of Contents

Introduction and Simple Examples

A function is similar to a subroutine (Gosub) except that it can accept parameters (inputs) from its caller. In addition, a function may optionally return a value to its caller. Consider the following simple function that accepts two numbers and returns their sum:

Add(x, y)
    return x + y

The above is known as a function definition because it creates a function named "Add" (not case sensitive) and establishes that anyone who calls it must provide exactly two parameters (x and y). To call the function, assign its result to a variable with the := operator. For example:

Var := Add(2, 3)  ; The number 5 will be stored in Var.

Also, a function may be called without storing its return value:

Add(2, 3)
Add 2, 3  ; Parentheses can be omitted if used at the start of a line.

But in this case, any value returned by the function is discarded; so unless the function produces some effect other than its return value, the call would serve no purpose.

Within an expression, a function call "evaluates to" the return value of the function. The return value can be assigned to a variable as shown above, or it can be used directly as shown below:

if InStr(MyVar, "fox")
    MsgBox "The variable MyVar contains the word fox."


When a function is defined, its parameters are listed in parentheses next to its name (there must be no spaces between its name and the open-parenthesis). If a function does not accept any parameters, leave the parentheses empty; for example: GetCurrentTimestamp().

ByRef Parameters: From the function's point of view, parameters are essentially the same as local variables unless they are defined as ByRef as in this example:

Swap(ByRef Left, ByRef Right)
    temp := Left
    Left := Right
    Right := temp

In the example above, the use of ByRef causes each parameter to become an alias for the variable passed in from the caller. In other words, the parameter and the caller's variable both refer to the same contents in memory. This allows the Swap function to alter the caller's variables by moving Left's contents into Right and vice versa.

By contrast, if ByRef were not used in the example above, Left and Right would be copies of the caller's variables and thus the Swap function would have no external effect.

Since return can send back only one value to a function's caller, ByRef can be used to send back extra results. This is achieved by having the caller pass in a variable (usually empty) in which the function stores a value.

When passing large strings to a function, ByRef enhances performance and conserves memory by avoiding the need to make a copy of the string. Similarly, using ByRef to send a long string back to the caller usually performs better than something like Return HugeString.

If something other than a modifiable variable is passed to a ByRef parameter, the function behaves as though the keyword "ByRef" is absent. For example, Swap(A_Index, i) stores the value of A_Index in i, but the value assigned to Left is discarded once the Swap function returns.

The IsByRef() function can be used to determine whether the caller supplied a variable for a given ByRef parameter.

Known limitations:

Optional Parameters

When defining a function, one or more of its parameters can be marked as optional. This is done by appending the assignment operator followed by a default value. The following function has its Z parameter marked optional:

Add(X, Y, Z := 0) {
    return X + Y + Z

When the caller passes three parameters to the function above, Z's default value is ignored. But when the caller passes only two parameters, Z automatically receives the value 0.

It is not possible to have optional parameters isolated in the middle of the parameter list. In other words, all parameters that lie to the right of the first optional parameter must also be marked optional. However, optional parameters may be omitted from the middle of the parameter list when calling the function, as shown below:

Func(1,, 3)
Func(X, Y:=2, Z:=0) {  ; Note that Z must still be optional in this case.
    MsgBox X ", " Y ", " Z

ByRef parameters also support default values; for example: Func(ByRef p1 := ""). Whenever the caller omits such a parameter, the function creates a local variable to contain the default value; in other words, the function behaves as though the keyword "ByRef" is absent.

A parameter's default value must be one of the following: true, false, a literal integer, a literal floating point number, or a quoted/literal string such as "fox" or "".

Returning Values to Caller

As described in introduction, a function may optionally return a value to its caller.

MsgBox returnTest()

returnTest() {
  return 123

If you want to return extra results from a function, you may also use ByRef:

MsgBox A "," B "," C

returnByRef(ByRef val1, ByRef val2, ByRef val3)
  val1 := "A"
  val2 := 100
  val3 := 1.1

Objects and Arrays can be used to return multiple values or even named values:

Test1 := returnArray1()
MsgBox Test1[1] "," Test1[2]

Test2 := returnArray2()
MsgBox Test2[1] "," Test2[2]

Test3 := returnObject()
MsgBox "," Test3.val

returnArray1() {
  Test := [123,"ABC"]
  return Test

returnArray2() {
  x := 456
  y := "EFG"
  return [x, y]

returnObject() {
  Test := {id: 789, val: "HIJ"}
  return Test

Variadic Functions

When defining a function, write an asterisk after the final parameter to mark the function as variadic, allowing it to receive a variable number of parameters:

Join(sep, params*) {
    for index,param in params
        str .= param . sep
    return SubStr(str, 1, -StrLen(sep))
MsgBox Join("`n", "one", "two", "three")

When a variadic function is called, surplus parameters can be accessed via an object which is stored in the function's final parameter. The first surplus parameter is at params[1], the second at params[2] and so on. As it is a standard Object, params.Length() can be used to determine the number of parameters.


Variadic Function Calls

While variadic functions can accept a variable number of parameters, an array of parameters can be passed to any function by applying the same syntax to a function-call:

substrings := ["one", "two", "three"]
MsgBox % Join("`n", substrings*)


Known limitations:

Local and Global Variables

Local Variables

Local variables are specific to a single function and are visible only inside that function. Consequently, a local variable may have the same name as a global variable and both will have separate contents. Separate functions may also safely use the same variable names.

All local variables which are not static are automatically freed (made empty) when the function returns.

Variables access or created inside a function are local by default, with the following exceptions:

The default may also be overridden as shown below.

Global variables

To refer to an existing global variable inside a function (or create a new one), declare the variable as global prior to using it. For example:

    global LogFileName  ; This global variable was previously given a value somewhere outside this function.
    FileAppend TextToLog "`n", LogFileName

Assume-global mode: If a function needs to access or create a large number of global variables, it can be defined to assume that all its variables are global (except its parameters) by making its first line the word "global". For example:

    MyGlobal := 33  ; Assigns 33 to a global variable, first creating the variable if necessary.
    local x, y:=0, z  ; Local variables must be declared in this mode, otherwise they would be assumed global.

This assume-global mode can also be used by a function to create a global pseudo-array, such as a loop that assigns values to Array%A_Index%.

Super-global variables: If a global declaration appears outside of any function, it takes effect for all functions by default. This avoids the need to redeclare the variable in each function. However, if a function parameter or local variable with the same name is declared, it takes precedence over the global variable. Variables created by the class keyword are also super-global.

Static variables

Static variables are always implicitly local, but differ from locals because their values are remembered between calls. For example:

    static LoggedLines := 0
    LoggedLines += 1  ; Maintain a tally locally (its value is remembered between calls).
    global LogFileName
    FileAppend LoggedLines ": " TextToLog "`n", LogFileName

A static variable may be initialized on the same line as its declaration by following it with := followed by any expression. For example: static X:=0, Y:="fox". Each static variable is initialized only once. Static variables are initialized in the order that they appear in the script file, but before the script's auto-execute section.

Assume-static mode: A function may be defined to assume that all its variables are static (except its parameters) by making its first line the word "static". For example:

    static FirstCallToUs := true  ; A static declaration's initializer still runs only once (upon startup).
    if FirstCallToUs  ; Create a static array during the first call, but not on subsequent calls.
        FirstCallToUs := false
        Loop 10
            StaticArray%A_Index% := "Value #" . A_Index
    return StaticArray%WhichItemNumber%

In assume-static mode, any variable that should not be static must be declared as local or global.

More about locals and globals

Multiple variables may be declared on the same line by separating them with commas as in these examples:

global LogFileName, MaxRetries := 5
static TotalAttempts := 0, PrevResult

A local or global variable may be initialized on the same line as its declaration by following it with := followed by any expression. Unlike static initializers, the initializers of locals and globals execute every time the function is called, but only if/when the flow of control actually reaches them. In other words, a line like local x := 0 has the same effect as writing two separate lines: local x followed by x := 0.

Because the words local, global, and static are processed immediately when the script launches, a variable cannot be conditionally declared by means of an IF statement. In other words, a declaration inside an IF's or ELSE's block takes effect unconditionally for all lines between the declaration and the function's closing brace. Also note that it is not currently possible to declare a dynamic variable such as global Array%i%.

Dynamically Calling a Function

A function (even a built-in function) may be called dynamically via percent signs. For example, %Var%(x, "fox") would call the function whose name is contained in Var. Similarly, Func%A_Index%() would call Func1() or Func2(), etc., depending on the current value of A_Index.

Var in %Var%() can contain a function name or a function object. If the function does not exist, the default base object's Call method is called instead (and as usual, if this method is undefined, the __Call meta-function is invoked).

If the function cannot be called due to one of the reasons below, an exception is thrown:

Finally, a dynamic call to a function is slightly slower than a normal call because normal calls are resolved (looked up) before the script begins running.

Short-circuit Boolean Evaluation

When AND, OR, and the ternary operator are used within an expression, they short-circuit to enhance performance (regardless of whether any function calls are present). Short-circuiting operates by refusing to evaluate parts of an expression that cannot possibly affect its final result. To illustrate the concept, consider this example:

if (ColorName <> "" AND not FindColor(ColorName))
    MsgBox %ColorName% could not be found.

In the example above, the FindColor() function never gets called if the ColorName variable is empty. This is because the left side of the AND would be false, and thus its right side would be incapable of making the final outcome true.

Because of this behavior, it's important to realize that any side-effects produced by a function (such as altering a global variable's contents) might never occur if that function is called on the right side of an AND or OR.

It should also be noted that short-circuit evaluation cascades into nested ANDs and ORs. For example, in the following expression, only the leftmost comparison occurs whenever ColorName is blank. This is because the left side would then be enough to determine the final answer with certainty:

if (ColorName = "" OR FindColor(ColorName, Region1) OR FindColor(ColorName, Region2))
    break   ; Nothing to search for, or a match was found.

As shown by the examples above, any expensive (time-consuming) functions should generally be called on the right side of an AND or OR to enhance performance. This technique can also be used to prevent a function from being called when one of its parameters would be passed a value it considers inappropriate, such as an empty string.

The ternary conditional operator (?:) also short-circuits by not evaluating the losing branch.

Using Subroutines Within a Function

Although a function cannot contain definitions of other functions, it can contain subroutines. As with other subroutines, use Gosub to launch them and Return to return (in which case the Return would belong to the Gosub and not the function).

If a function uses Gosub to jump to a public subroutine (one that lies outside of the function's braces), all variables outside are global and the function's own local variables are not accessible until the subroutine returns. However, A_ThisFunc will still contain the name of the function.

Although Goto cannot be used to jump from inside a function to outside, it is possible for a function to Gosub an external/public subroutine and then do a Goto from there.

Although the use of Goto is generally discouraged, it can be used inside a function to jump to another position within the same function. This can help simplify complex functions that have many points of return, all of which need to do some clean-up prior to returning.

A function may contain externally-called subroutines such as timers, and menu items. This is generally done to encapsulate them in a separate file for use with #Include, which prevents them from interfering with the script's auto-execute section. However, the following limitations apply:

Return, Exit, and General Remarks

If the flow of execution within a function reaches the function's closing brace prior to encountering a Return, the function ends and returns a blank value (empty string) to its caller. A blank value is also returned whenever the function explicitly omits Return's parameter.

When a function uses the Exit command to terminate the current thread, its caller does not receive a return value at all. For example, the statement Var := Add(2, 3) would leave Var unchanged if Add() exits. The same thing happens if a function causes a runtime error such as running a nonexistent file (when UseErrorLevel is not in effect).

A function may alter the value of ErrorLevel for the purpose of returning an extra value that is easy to remember.

To call a function with one or more blank values (empty strings), use an empty pair of quotes as in this example: FindColor(ColorName, "").

Since calling a function does not start a new thread, any changes made by a function to settings such as SendMode and SetTitleMatchMode will go into effect for its caller too.

The caller of a function may pass a nonexistent variable or array element to it, which is useful when the function expects the corresponding parameter to be ByRef. For example, calling GetNextLine(BlankArray%i%) would create the variable BlankArray%i% automatically as a local or global (depending on whether the caller is inside a function and whether it has the assume-global mode in effect).

When used inside a function, ListVars displays a function's local variables along with their contents. This can help debug a script.

Style and Naming Conventions

You might find that complex functions are more readable and maintainable if their special variables are given a distinct prefix. For example, naming each parameter in a function's parameter list with a leading "p" or "p_" makes their special nature easy to discern at a glance, especially when a function has several dozen local variables competing for your attention. Similarly, the prefix "r" or "r_" could be used for ByRef parameters, and "s" or "s_" could be used for static variables.

The One True Brace (OTB) style may optionally be used to define functions. For example:

Add(x, y) {
    return x + y

Using #Include to Share Functions Among Multiple Scripts

The #Include directive may be used (even at the top of a script) to load functions from an external file.

Explanation: When the script's flow of execution encounters a function definition, it jumps over it (using an instantaneous method) and resumes execution at the line after its closing brace. Consequently, execution can never fall into a function from above, nor does the presence of one or more functions at the very top of a script affect the auto-execute section.

Libraries of Functions: Standard Library and User Library

A script may call a function in an external file without having to use #Include. For this to work, a file of the same name as the function must exist in one of the following library directories:

%A_ScriptDir%\Lib\  ; Local library.
%A_MyDocuments%\AutoHotkey\Lib\  ; User library.
path-to-the-currently-running-AutoHotkey.exe\Lib\  ; Standard library.

For example, if a script calls a nonexistent function MyFunc(), the program searches for a file named "MyFunc.ahk" in the user library. If not found there, it searches for it in the standard library. If a match is still not found and the function's name contains an underscore (e.g. MyPrefix_MyFunc), the program searches both libraries for a file named MyPrefix.ahk and loads it if it exists. This allows MyPrefix.ahk to contain both the function MyPrefix_MyFunc and other related functions whose names start with MyPrefix_.

The local library is searched before the user library and standard library.

Only a direct function call such as MyFunc() can cause a library to be auto-included. If the function is only called dynamically or indirectly, such as by a timer or GUI event, the library must be explicitly included in the script. For example: #Include <MyFunc>

Although a library file generally contains only a single function of the same name as its filename, it may also contain private functions and subroutines that are called only by it. However, such functions should have fairly distinct names because they will still be in the global namespace; that is, they will be callable from anywhere in the script.

If a library file uses #Include, the working directory for #Include is the library file's own directory. This can be used to create a redirect to a larger library file that contains that function and others related to it.

The script compiler (ahk2exe) also supports library functions. However, it requires that a copy of AutoHotkey.exe exist in the directory above the compiler directory (which is normally the case). If AutoHotkey.exe is absent, the compiler still works but library functions are not automatically included.

Functions included from a library perform just as well as other functions because they are pre-loaded before the script begins executing.

Built-in Functions

Any optional parameters at the end of a built-in function's parameter list may be completely omitted. For example, WinExist("Untitled - Notepad") is valid because its other three parameters would be considered blank.

A built-in function is overridden if the script defines its own function of the same name. For example, a script could have its own custom WinExist() function that is called instead of the standard one. However, the script would then have no way to call the original function.

External functions that reside in DLL files may be called with DllCall().

To get more details about a particular built-in function below, simply click on its name.

Macro Functions

A function definition can be prefixed with 'macro ' (followed by space, not tab!) to create a macro instead of function.
Macro will use caller's scope for all variables except for parameters, function parameters will be resolved to local variables.
Dynamic variable references will also use caller's scope.

Global and static variables are not supported in macros.

Deref function example:

	MsgBox deref("Calling deref ``% from %A_ThisFunc% in %MyVar%")
macro deref(__deref__,__out__:="",__set__:=""){
	Loop Parse, __deref__, "%"
		If __set__&&!__set__:=false
		else if SubStr(A_LoopField,-1)="``"
			__out__.=SubStr(A_LoopField,1,-1) "%"
		else __out__.=A_LoopField,__set__:=true
	return __out__

Alternative deref function example:

	MsgBox deref(["A_ThisFunc","MyVar"],"Calling deref ``% from `a in `a","`a")
macro deref(__vars__,__text__,__delimiter__,__out__:=""){
	Loop Parse, __text__, __delimiter__
		if A_LoopField
			__delimiter__:=__vars__[A_Index],__out__.=A_LoopField %__delimiter__%
	return __out__

Frequently-used Functions

Function Description
DirExist Checks for the existence of a folder and returns its attributes.
FileExist Checks for the existence of a file or folder and returns its attributes.
GetKeyState Returns true (1) if the specified key is down and false (0) if it is up.
InStr Searches for a given occurrence of a string, from the left or the right.
RegExMatch Determines whether a string contains a pattern (regular expression).
RegExReplace Replaces occurrences of a pattern (regular expression) inside a string.
StrLen Retrieves the count of how many characters are in a string.
StrReplace Replaces occurrences of the specified substring with a new string.
StrSplit Separates a string into an array of substrings using the specified delimiters.
SubStr Retrieves one or more characters from the specified position in a string.
WinActive Checks if the specified window exists and is currently active (foremost), and returns its Unique ID (HWND).
WinExist Checks if a matching window exists and returns the Unique ID (HWND) of the first matching window.

Miscellaneous Functions

Function Description
Chr Returns the string (usually a single character) corresponding to the character code indicated by the specified number.
DllCall Calls a function inside a DLL, such as a standard Windows API function.
FileOpen Provides object-oriented file I/O.
Func Retrieves a reference to the specified function.
GetKeyName/VK/SC Retrieves the name/text, virtual key code or scan code of a key.
IsByRef Returns a non-zero number if a ByRef parameter of a function was supplied with the specified variable.
IsFunc Returns a non-zero number if the specified function exists in the script.
IsLabel Returns a non-zero number if the specified label exists in the script.
IsObject Returns a non-zero number if the specified value is an object.
ListView Functions to add, insert, modify or delete ListView rows/colums, or to get data from them.
NumGet Returns the binary number stored at the specified address+offset.
NumPut Stores a number in binary format at the specified address+offset.
OnMessage Monitors a message/event.
Ord Returns the ordinal value (numeric character code) of the first character in the specified string.
StrGet Copies a string from a memory address, optionally converting it between code pages.
StrPut Copies a string to a memory address, optionally converting it between code pages.
RegisterCallback Creates a machine-code address that when called, redirects the call to a function in the script.
TreeView Functions to add, modify or delete TreeView items, or to get data from them.
Trim Trims characters from the beginning and/or end of a string.
VarSetCapacity Enlarges a variable's holding capacity or frees its memory.


Function Description
Abs Returns the absolute value of Number.
Ceil Returns Number rounded up to the nearest integer (without any .00 suffix).
Exp Returns e (which is approximately 2.71828182845905) raised to the Nth power.
Floor Returns Number rounded down to the nearest integer (without any .00 suffix).
Log Returns the logarithm (base 10) of Number.
Ln Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of Number.
Mod Returns the remainder when Dividend is divided by Divisor.
Round Returns Number rounded to N decimal places.
Sqrt Returns the square root of Number.
Sin / Cos / Tan Returns the trigonometric sine/cosine/tangent of Number.
ASin / ACos / ATan Returns the arcsine/arccosine/arctangent in radians.